Coronary artery anatomy

Major Branches The coronary arteries arise from the proximal portion of the aorta (the aorta’s first branches) as the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left coronary artery (LCA). These vessels lie just deep to the epicardium on the surface of the heart. The heart receives a dual blood supply: The epicardium and myocardium are […]

Anatomy for layers of the Heart

The heart is composed of three layers: endocardium, myocardium, and pericardium. Endocardium The endocardium is the innermost layer and contacts the blood in the heart chambers. It is composed of simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) and underlying connective tissue. Myocardium The myocardium is the middle and thickest layer composed of myocytes, the contractile cells responsible for […]

Compounded Words – Meaning

1. Anaemia – Deficiency of haemoglobin in the blood 2. Analgesic – Medicine which alleviates pain 3. Arthralgia – Pain in a joint 4. Cephalalgia – Headache 5. Nephralgia – Pain in the kidney 6. Neuralgia – Nerve pain 7. Myalgia – Muscle pain 8. Otalgia – Ear ache 9. Gastralgia – Pain in the […]

Recovery position in adults and children

Before you start Make sure that you have carried out the following steps: • Checked for consciousness but had no response. • Opened the victim’s airway. • Checked for breathing and found definite signs. 1. Position arms and legs: • Kneel next to the victim. • If the victim is wearing eyeglasses, remove them. Also […]

Procedure for opening airway in babies under 1 year

Before you start:  Make sure that you have: • Checked for consciousness but had no response. 1. Tilt head back • Place one hand on the baby’s forehead, then tilt the head by pressing on the forehead. 2. Remove any obstruction • Pick out any obvious obstruction in the mouth with your fingertips. 3. Lift […]

Procedure for opening airway in adults and children

Before you start: Make sure that you have: • Checked for consciousness but had no response. 1. Tilt head back • Gently place one hand on the victim’s forehead. • Tilt the head back by pressing down on the forehead. 2. Remove any obstruction • Look inside the victim’s mouth. Carefully pick out any obvious […]

Intestinal Tract Infection with E.Coli

The first step is the adherence of the organism to the cells of the jejunum and ileum by means of pili that protrude from the bacterial surface. Once attached, the bacteria synthesize enterotoxins (exotoxins that act in the enteric tract), which act on the cells of the jejunum and ileum to cause diarrhea. The toxins […]

Definition of Alzheimer’s Disease

The development of the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria (1) has proved to be a major advance for the identification of potential AD drug trial participants. The criteria define probable AD and also provide an operational definition of exclusionary criteria. The key features for probable AD involve documented cognitive impairment involving recent memory disturbance as well as one […]

The Cell

The cell is the smallest functional unit of a living organism. In other words, a cell (and no smaller unit) is able to perform essential vital functions such as metabolism, growth, movement, reproduction, and hereditary transmission. Growth, reproduction, and hereditary transmission can be achieved by cell division. Cell components: All cells consist of a cell […]