Coarctation of the Aorta

Coarctation of the aorta is aortic narrowing that typically occurs proximal to the ductus arteriosus (can be termed “preductal” or “postductal” based on location...

Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions

Cyanosis is caused by lesions that lead to right-to-left shunting of blood, in which blood coming from the right ventricle bypasses lungs to various...

Aorticopulmonary Septum – Development

The aorticopulmonary (AP) septum is derived from neural crest cells that migrate into the primitive ventricular outflow tract. It is responsible for separating the...

Interventricular Septum – Development

The interventricular septum consists of two parts: the muscular portion and the membranous portion. ■ The muscular interventricular septum forms as an upward expansion of...

Peripheral oedema

Swelling of the ankles/legs (or sacrum if bed-bound) occurs when the rate of capillary filtration > rate of drainage. • Increased capillary filtration occurs due...
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