Coronary artery anatomy

Major Branches The coronary arteries arise from the proximal portion of the aorta (the aorta’s first branches) as the right coronary artery (RCA) and the left coronary artery (LCA). These vessels lie just deep to the epicardium on the surface of the heart. The heart receives a dual blood supply: The epicardium and myocardium are […]

Anatomy for layers of the Heart

The heart is composed of three layers: endocardium, myocardium, and pericardium. Endocardium The endocardium is the innermost layer and contacts the blood in the heart chambers. It is composed of simple squamous epithelium (endothelium) and underlying connective tissue. Myocardium The myocardium is the middle and thickest layer composed of myocytes, the contractile cells responsible for […]

Cyanotic Congenital Heart Lesions

Cyanosis is caused by lesions that lead to right-to-left shunting of blood, in which blood coming from the right ventricle bypasses lungs to various degrees before entering systemic circulation. These lesions can be remembered as the 5 Ts: 1. Tetralogy of Fallot (most common cause of early cyanosis) 2. Transposition of the great vessels 3. […]

Aorticopulmonary Septum – Development

The aorticopulmonary (AP) septum is derived from neural crest cells that migrate into the primitive ventricular outflow tract. It is responsible for separating the truncus arteriosus into the aorta and pulmonary artery. As the septum descends, it spirals 180 degrees so that the aorta becomes the left ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary trunk becomes […]

Interventricular Septum – Development

The interventricular septum consists of two parts: the muscular portion and the membranous portion. ■ The muscular interventricular septum forms as an upward expansion of the base of the primitive ventricle. It extends toward the AV septum but does not reach it; the resulting gap is the interventricular foramen. ■ The membranous interventricular septum is […]

Atrial Septum – Development

The atrial septum is responsible for the initial division of the primitive atrium into the left and right atria. The steps of development are as follows: 1. The septum primum begins to grow toward the atrioventricular (AV) cushions. The orifice (ie, ostium) between the leading edge of the septum primum and the AV cushions is […]

Treating choking in adults and children over 7 years old

Step 1: Encourage coughing • Ask the victim to cough. This may dislodge whatever is blocking the victim’s windpipe. • Check a child’s mouth to see if anything has been dislodged. Step 2:  Give abdominal thrusts • If the victim is becoming weak, or stops breathing or coughing, carry out abdominal thrusts. Stand behind the victim and […]

Treating Unconsciousness in all ages

  Step 1: Check consciousness • Check the victim for signs of consciousness. • Open the victim’s airway and check her breathing. • If the victim is not breathing, begin rescue breaths. • If the victim is breathing, place her in the recovery position and treat any injuries (see step 3). Step 2: Summon help • Dial […]

Procedure for giving CPR in babies under 1 years old

Before you start: Make sure that you have carried out the following steps: • Checked for consciousness but had no response. • Opened the baby’s airway. • Checked for breathing but found no signs. • Given two effective rescue breaths and checked for signs of circulation but found none. OR • Attempted two rescue breaths […]

Compounded Words – Meaning

1. Anaemia – Deficiency of haemoglobin in the blood 2. Analgesic – Medicine which alleviates pain 3. Arthralgia – Pain in a joint 4. Cephalalgia – Headache 5. Nephralgia – Pain in the kidney 6. Neuralgia – Nerve pain 7. Myalgia – Muscle pain 8. Otalgia – Ear ache 9. Gastralgia – Pain in the […]