What is Amenorrhoea and Menarche

Amenorrhoea is the absence of menstruation for 6 months in a woman who had previously menstruated normally (sometimes called 2 amenorrhoea) or amenorrhoea is the...

The heart chambers

The right atrium (Fig. 7.3) • Receives deoxygenated blood from the inferior vena cava below and from the superior vena cava above. • Receives the coronary sinus...

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Procedure for giving rescue breaths in adults and children

Before you start:  Make sure that you have carried out the following steps: • Checked for consciousness but had no response. • Opened the victim’s airway. • Checked...

The pleura and airways

The respiratory tract is most often discussed in terms of upper and lower parts. The upper respiratory tract relates to the nasopharynx and larynx whereas the...

Procedure for opening airway in babies under 1 year

Before you start:  Make sure that you have: • Checked for consciousness but had no response. 1. Tilt head back • Place one hand on the baby’s forehead,...
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Interventricular Septum – Development

The interventricular septum consists of two parts: the muscular portion and the membranous portion. ■ The muscular interventricular septum forms as an upward expansion of...

Where and how it should be used Warfarin

Common indications: To prevent clot extension and recurrence in deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism (collectively, venous thromboembolism ). To prevent embolic complications (e.g. stroke) in...

Where and how it should be used Aspirin

Common indications:  1. For treatment of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke, where rapid inhibition of platelet aggregation can prevent or limit arterial thrombosis...

Cricothyrotomy

Equipment needed at a minimum: Scalpel, tracheal hook, or tissue-spreading device, 5.5 r 6.0 cuffed ET...

Trichomonas vaginalis TV

Presentation in men 15–50% are asymptomatic. Symptoms: dysuria, urethral discharge. Take urethral swab and first-void...

Respiratory rate

Normal rate for an adult is 14 breaths/min at rest. Higher in children: • Neonate: 30–60...

Needle Cricothyrotomy

Surgical airway of choice in children < 10-12 years old. Provides a temporary airway to...

Where and how it should be used Aspirin

Common indications:  1. For treatment of acute coronary syndrome and acute ischaemic stroke, where rapid inhibition...

HEALTH

Cricothyrotomy

Equipment needed at a minimum: Scalpel, tracheal hook, or tissue-spreading device, 5.5 r 6.0 cuffed ET tube. Indication Failed airway Contraindication Age: Substitute needle cricothyrotomy for patients < 10-12...

Coarctation of the Aorta

Pelvic Pain

Bacterial vaginosis

SCIENCE

Vaginal discharge

All women have some vaginal discharge. Physiological discharge varies considerably and is affected by the menstrual cycle. • Before ovulation—mucus is clearer, wetter, stretchy, and...

Recovery position in babies under 1 year old

Before your start: Make sure that you have carried out the following steps: • Checked for consciousness but had no response. • Opened the baby’s airway. • Checked...

Health risks of obesity

Greatly increased risk (RR >3) Mortality (BMI >30) Type 2 DM (BMI of 35 confers a 92x increase risk of DM) Gall bladder disease ...

Treating choking in adults and children over 7 years old

Step 1: Encourage coughing • Ask the victim to cough. This may dislodge whatever is blocking the victim’s windpipe. • Check a child’s mouth to see if...